Resources for Language Immersion Education

Professional Organizations

American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL)
The American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages is the only national organization dedicated to the improvement and expansion of the teaching and learning of all languages at all levels of instruction. ACTFL is an individual membership organization of more than 7,000 foreign language educators and administrators from elementary through graduate education, as well as government and industry. ACTFL organizes an annual conference, publishes the journal Foreign Language Annals, and offers a Special Interest Group (SIG) for dual language/immersion educators.

Association canadienne des professeurs d'immersion/Canadian Association of Immersion Teachers (ACPI/ CAIT)
ACPI/ CAIT is a professional non-profit association aims to promote and improve Immersion programs in Canada and provides professional development opportunities for immersion teachers. ACPI/CAIT offers a newsletter and annually sponsors both a summer institute and a conference.

Association of Two-Way and Dual Language Education (ATDLE)
The organization is led by experienced two-way bilingual immersion educators and administrators from throughout California. ATDLE hosts the National Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Conference each summer and provides professional support for TWBI programs throughout the country.

Canadian Association of Second Language Teachers (CASLT)
CASLT promotes the advancement of second language learning and teaching, including immersion, throughout Canada by creating opportunities for professional development, by encouraging research, and by facilitating the sharing of information and the exchange of ideas among second language and immersion educators.

Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA)
The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) is one of the U.S. Department of Education's Title VI National Language Resource Centers, whose role is to improve the nation's capacity to teach and learn foreign languages effectively. CARLA offers annual summer institutes specifically targeted at the needs of immersion educators.

Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL)
CAL is a private, non-profit organization that carries out a wide range of activities including research, teacher education, analysis and dissemination of information, design and development of instructional materials, technical assistance, conference planning, program evaluation, and policy analysis. They sponsor up-to-date directories of U.S. total and partial immersion programs & two-way immersion programs. In addition, CAL maintains an extensive array of research-based information on two-way immersion programs in the U.S.

Chinese Early Language and Immersion Network (CELIN)
CELIN was established to strengthen and expand Chinese language education in early childhood, primary grades, and immersion programs. With a focus on Chinese language education, we convene and work together with practitioners, researchers, policy makers, parents, and advocates for language learning across the United States and beyond.

Colorín Colorado
Colorín Colorado is a national multimedia project that offers a wealth of bilingual, research-based information, activities, and advice for educators and families of English language learners (ELLs).

Dual Language Education of New Mexico (DLeNM)
Dual Language Education of New Mexico is a state-based organization created to promote the effective design and implementation of dual language models as defined in New Mexico Best Practices for Dual Language Program's Handbook. This organization is known for its annual fall conference La Cosecha and its participation in developing standards and best practices for two-way immersion. More recent initiatives include professional development and continuing education for immersion professionals and the community members they serve.

Dual Language Immersion Research Alliance
The Alliance is a network of K-12 practitioners and education researchers seeking to advance quality and build capacity in dual language immersion learning by identifying core features and variables for quality implementation. This network seeks to develop and carry out a rigorous research agenda on topics that matter to all schools involved in, or planning to be involved in, dual language learning.

Gaelscoileanna is an Irish national organization promoting Irish immersion education. They publish a newsletter (in Irish) three times each year, host an annual conference, and provide a network among Irish immersion schools.

Midwest Indigenous Immersion Network (MIIN)
The mission of MIIN is to assist Ojibwe language immersion programs to communicate and collaborate to collectively address common needs in professional and linguistic development, organization and distribution of materials and assessments, and recruitment of staff and students. Their website includes curricula and materials, an online repository of Ojibwe specific reading materials, and links to additional resources.

National Association for Bilingual Education (NABE)
NABE is the only national organization exclusively concerned with the education of language-minority students in American schools and actively works to promote educational excellence and equity through bilingual education. NABE sponsors an annual conference and the organization publishes a journal and an online newsletter. The NABE website includes answers to frequently asked questions about bilingual education.

National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition (NCELA)
NCELA supports the U.S. Department of Education's Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students (OELA) by collecting, coordinating, and conveying a broad range of research and resources in support of an inclusive approach to high quality education for ELs. NCELA publishes Nexus, a semimonthly e-newsletter to share new resources, upcoming events, and other announcements, and provide links to opportunities for jobs, education, and funding related to the education of ELs and the EL community.

National Dual Language Forum (NDLF)
Initially established in 2006 as the National Dual Language Consortium, the mission of the National Dual Language Forum (NDLF) is to promote the benefits of dual language education and foster collaboration among key organizations and individuals dedicated to dual language and bilingual education across the country. The consortium has two distinct activities: hosting of a dedicated website of information and resources and developing white papers on important issues in dual language and bilingual education.

National Network for Early Language Learning (NNELL)
NNELL is an organization for educators involved in teaching foreign languages to children and provides leadership, support, and service to those committed to early language learning and coordinates efforts to make language learning in programs of excellence a reality for all children. The NNELL journal Learning Languages is published three times a year (fall, winter, and spring).


Professional Publications and Newsletters

American Council on Immersion Education (ACIE) Newsletter Archives
ACIE served as an organizational network for individuals interested in immersion education (teachers, administrators, teacher educators, researchers, parents) beginning in spring 1997. Conceived by immersion teachers in Minnesota and funded in part by CARLA at the University of Minnesota, ACIE facilitated communication among immersion teachers and others interested in immersion education for nearly fifteen years and published the ACIE Newsletter. With cuts to funding beginning in 2011, ACIE was not able to make its planned transition to an online journal for immersion practitioners and the decision was made to suspend enrolling new members. Selected articles are archived on the ACIE website and provide a treasure trove of information about immersion education.

Bilingual Research Journal
This is the official journal of the National Association for Bilingual Education.

Canadian Modern Language Review
CMLR publishes peer-reviewed articles on all aspects of language learning and teaching - linguistics, language skills, curriculum, program design, psychology, methodology - making this a great tool for teachers, researchers, professors and policy makers who deal with the realities of second language learning. Article topics range from ESL, to French immersion, to international languages, to native languages, and more.

ERIC Digests

Impact of Two-Way Immersion on Students' Attitudes Toward School and College
by Kathryn Lindholm-Leary & Graciela Borsato (2002, ERIC Digest EDO-FL-02-01).
This digest reports on a study that examined the impact of participation in a two-way immersion program on the language and achievement outcomes of former program participants and on their current schooling path and college plans.

In Their Own Words: Two-Way Immersion Teachers Talk About Their Professional Experiences
by Elizabeth R. Howard & Michael I. Loeb (1998, ERIC Digest EDO-FL-98-14)
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight elementary TWI teachers from various programs across the country, and their responses were used to formulate a professional development needs assessment questionnaire that was distributed to 181 pre-K–8 classroom teachers in 12 TWI programs. Findings from the interviews and questionnaires are presented in this digest.

Raising Bilingual Children: Common Parental Concerns and Current Research
by Kendall King and Lyn Fogle, Georgetown, 2006
The purpose of this digest is to help pediatricians, speech language pathologists, classroom teachers, and other professionals who work with bilingual children and their parents understand common parental concerns related to bilingual childrearing and become familiar with the current science on bilingual child development.

Two-Way Immersion Programs: Features and Statistics
by Elizabeth R. Howard and Julie Sugarman (2001, ERIC Digest EDO-FL-01-01)
This digest summarizes findings from data in the Center for Applied Linguistics' two-way immersion (TWI) directory regarding features of TWI programs, students, and staff.

What Parents Want to Know About Foreign Language Immersion Programs
by Tara W. Fortune and Diane J. Tedick, University of Minnesota
This digest answers some of the most common questions that parents and others ask about foreign language immersion education:
What is a foreign language immersion program and how does it work?
Why should I consider enrolling my child in an immersion program?
How will learning everything in a second language affect my child's English language and literacy development?
Will my child become proficient in the second language? How long will that take?
Is immersion an appropriate choice for all children?
What can I do to support my child's immersion experience if I don't speak the second language?

International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism
The Journal seeks to promote theoretical and applied research into bilingual education and bilingualism, to provide a truly international exchange, and to encourage international debates and discussions on key issues in areas of controversy in bilingual education and bilingualism, to disseminate internationally effective practice (e.g. in the development of bilingual children, bilingual education, bilingualism in the economy), and to provide interdisciplinary perspectives for an international audience.

Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education (JICB)
The Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education (JICB) is an international research journal published by John Benjamins, started in Spring, 2013.

JICB aims at publishing research on language immersion and other types of content-based language education programs that are subject matter-driven and subject matter-accountable. We welcome submissions from around the world based on, for example, language immersion education, dual language education, bilingual education, CLIL (content-and-language integrated learning), sheltered English as a Second Language (ESL), language across the curriculum (LAC), language for specific/academic purposes, content-based indigenous language revitalization initiatives, and so on.

Please visit our website for more information and guidelines for authors:

Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development
The Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development is concerned with macro-level coverage of topics in the sociology and social psychology of language, in language and cultural politics, policy, planning and practice, and in all the many ramifications of these broad themes – ethnicity and nationalism, multicultural and pluralist accommodations in heterogeneous societies, issues surrounding collective identity and its ‘markers’, the dynamics of minority groups, educational provisions for language and culture, endangered languages, language and group rights, and so on.

Nexus is a semimonthly e-newsletter to share new resources, upcoming events, and other announcements, and provide links to opportunities for jobs, education, and funding related to the education of ELs and the EL community. Nexus subscribers may also receive occasional, time-sensitive announcements from the U.S. Department of Education's Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students (OELA) and the National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition (NCELA).

Dual Language New Mexico’s quarterly newsletter shares the latest developments in program design and implementation, instruction and assessment, family and community, advocacy and political updates, and more. 


Curricular Materials and Resources

Bringing the Biodiversity of Ecuador to Spanish Immersion Classrooms
by Diane J. Tedick and Constance Walker with Spanish Immersion Teachers
This Spanish-language science curriculum was developed by immersion language teachers for use in instructional settings at levels K-8. With funding from the U.S. Department of Education's Group Projects Abroad, a group of Spanish immersion teachers, under the direction of Professors Diane Tedick and Constance Walker at the University of Minnesota, traveled to Ecuador in July 1999 to study issues of biodiversity and environmental protection in Spanish. Based on their in-country research, the immersion teachers worked together with the project leaders to create a high quality content-based science curriculum for use in Spanish immersion programs around the country.

This online resource was created by and for immersion educators and researchers as a joint project between CARLA at the University of Minnesota and the Minnesota Advocates for Immersion Network (MAIN). The website is organized in a question-and-answer format around key topics in immersion education. Each question is followed by a set of common questions, a synthesis of responses from veteran practitioners, and a list of relevant ACIE Newsletter readings. Most of the practitioners had experience in one-way world language immersion settings. Note: This is a legacy project that was completed in 2007 and while it has not been updated since that time, it still contains valuable information for immersion educators.

CARLA Virtual Assessment Center (VAC)
The VAC is a series of web-based learning modules that provides teachers with background information, step-by-step guidance, and many practical resources on developing proficiency-based second language assessments for the classroom.

Center for Teaching for Biliteracy
The Center for Teaching for Biliteracy supports and advocates for the education of developing bilinguals: English Language Learners and all students in language development programs. This work is accomplished through the implementation of the biliteracy mindset and biliteracy systems. Their website offers many resources including webinars, articles on biliteracy, and teacher-created materials.

Chinese Language Learning in the Early Grades: A Handbook of Resource and Best Practices for Mandarin Immersion
This free resource, published by the Asia Society Partnership for Global Learning, draws on the experiences of a selection of  pioneering Chinese immersion programs to address key issues involved in establishing and developing character-based immersion programs in the U.S.  It includes a variety of Chinese immersion program profiles and a chapter summarizing research on the benefits and challenges of immersion education.

CoBaLTT Curriculum Development Resources
CoBaLTT provides intensive professional development and online resources that help language teachers create content-based lessons/units using technology to enhance students' language proficiency and content or cultural knowledge. In addition to the online instructional modules, the CoBaLTT project has compiled helpful resources to support the instructional modules, including the lesson plans and units developed by project participants, graphic organizer templates, technology tutorials and ideas, discussion boards for module topics, rubrics and checklists,

Dual Language and Immersion Teacher Assessment Rubrics
This website provides teacher assessment rubrics specifically designed for dual language and language immersion education (DLI) contexts. The site includes: an inservice teacher rubric; a self-assessment rubric to facilitate teacher reflection; a teacher workbook with examples corresponding to rubric descriptors; description of target audiences, rubric development, rubric levels, and recommended rubric usage; a list of resources that informed rubric development; and a list of scholarly works related to rubric development and use.

Elementary Immersion Learning Strategies Resource Guide (EILS)
The Elementary Immersion Learning Strategies Resource Guide (PDF) was created by the National Capital Language Resource Center to provide background information and practical resources for elementary immersion educators to help their students become more effective learners by using learning strategies. Topics covered include: definitions, descriptions, and examples of language learning strategies, teaching students to think about learning, teaching learning strategies using the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach, and selecting strategies to introduce to students in language and content areas at each grade level. The site also provides sample lessons for a variety of grade levels, languages, and subject areas, and a review of the literature on language learning strategies instruction. The appendices contain further resources for teachers: an annotated list of stories to help teach learning strategies, a model for developing a learning strategies lesson, and learning strategies lists and definitions in Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Japanese, and Russian, and practical resources like lesson plans, charts, and worksheets.

Evaluator’s Toolkit for Dual Language Programs
This free resource, written Kathryn Lindholm-Leary, Gary Hargett, and supported in part by the California Department of Education, guides novice and expert dual-language school staff members through tools to help them target assessment and accountability guidelines.

Global Literacy through Mandarin Immersion and STEM Project
This project was developed through the Minnesota Mandarin Immersion Collaborative (MMIC), a partnership between four early total Mandarin immersion programs in Minnesota and multiple units at the University of Minnesota with funding from the U.S. Department of Education’s Foreign Language Assistance Program. Led by Immersion Projects coordinator, Tara Fortune, and project director, Molly Wieland, the curriculum team repurposed existing Engineering is Elementary® (EiE®) curriculum for the Gr. 3 unit entitled "Just Passing Through: Designing Model Membranes" and created an expanded multidisciplinary unit of study for the Mandarin immersion classroom. The unit introduces a new framework for integrating, differentiating, and assessing immersion language development. EiE® materials were used with permission from the Museum of Science in Boston.

Guiding Principles for Dual Language
This free resource, also available for purchase as a hard copy, was developed as a tool to support dual-language programs with planning and ongoing implementation. “Grounded in evidence from research and best practices, the guiding principles address program issues in seven strands: Assessment and Accountability, Curriculum, Instruction, Staff Quality and Professional Development, Program Structure, Family and Community, and Support and Resources.”

Immersion Teaching Strategies Observation Checklist
The Immersion Teaching Strategies Observation Checklist was initially developed in 2000 during a CARLA summer institute facilitated by Tara Fortune at the University of Minnesota. "Effective Immersion Pedagogy" institute participants included immersion researchers, teachers, curriculum specialists, and administrators. This collaborative institute by-product was intended to support pre-service and practicing teachers with their ongoing professional development goals. It can be also used to inform and focus classroom observation for program leaders. In 2014, Tara Fortune revised the checklist to include recent research findings and practitioner feedback.

Ka Papahana Kaiapuni Hawai'i (The Hawaiian Language Immersion Program)
This website is hosted by the office of curriculum, instruction, and Student Support/Instructional Services Branch, Dept of Education, Hawai’i. Ka Papahana Kaiapuni Hawai'i strives to provide quality language immersion education based on knowledge of the Hawaiian language and culture as the foundation upon which individuals become responsible, sensitive, and productive adults who contribute significantly to all levels of Hawaii’s community.

Struggling Learners and Language Immersion Education: Research-based, Practitioner–informed Responses to Educators’ Top Questions
Recently published, this handbook is geared toward immersion parents, K-8 teachers, educational specialists, administrators and policy makers who work with dual language and immersion students. Growing out of work led by Dr. Tara Fortune, immersion projects coordinator at CARLA, the book fills a vital need for information on a topic that is fast becoming a widespread challenge as immersion programs become increasingly popular across the country.

The Two-Way Immersion Toolkit
The Two-Way Immersion Toolkit, developed by the Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) and The Education Alliance, is a resource for teachers, parents, and administrators involved with two-way immersion (TWI) programs, particularly those at the elementary school level. The Toolkit is designed to meet the growing demand from teachers, administrators, and parents for guidance related to the effective implementation of TWI programs. It is composed of three segments that address program design and planning, classroom instruction, and parental involvement, respectively.



Professional Development/Immersion Certification

**Many of the websites linked throughout these resources provide professional development opportunities. Be sure to check the sites thoroughly to find this information.

CARLA Summer Institutes for Dual language and Immersion Educators
For over twenty years, CARLA has offered week-long summer institutes for dual language and immersion educators, both novice-level and veterans. The topics of the summer institutes vary depending on the instructional capacity of the center.

Dual Language Certificate at California State University-San Marcos
The local Dual Language Certificate is a program within the Master's of Arts (MA) for candidates wishing to understand, analyze, and reflect on the major concepts, principles, theories, and research related to Dual Language Education. The DL Certificate courses are offered fully online in order to include a wider representation of candidates from various communities.

Dual Language and Multilingual Education
The Center for Applied Linguistics offers a variety of professional development programs for dual language educators.

Online Dual Language Certificate at San Diego State University
Sponsored by the Department of Dual Language and English Learner Education, this professional certificate program is now available ONLINE. It provides K-12 teachers and other education professionals with specialized course work in dual language programming. Dual language education provides instruction in two languages and is aimed for students to develop competencies in bilingualism, biliteracy and biculturalism/multiculturalism.

MEd and Teaching License in Elementary Education, Dual Language Immersion Focus Program at the University of Minnesota
This two-year program prepares you to teach elementary education content to students in both dual language/immersion classrooms and those where English is the language of instruction. You will earn a master’s of education (MEd) degree and qualify for a teaching license in K-6 classrooms. The program coursework focuses on dual language immersion (DLI)-specific practices such as biliteracy development and language-focused teaching strategies.

The Bilingual Education Certificate Program at the Lynch School of Education, The Boston College
The Bilingual Education Certificate is an instructional series designed for teachers who wish to earn the Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education endorsement for bilingual education. 


Parent Support

Canadian Parents for French (CPF)
CPF is a national network of volunteers that values French as an integral part of Canada and is dedicated to the promotion and creation of French second language learning opportunities for young Canadians. CPF sponsors a newsletter and an annual conference, and offers a website with many resources for educators and parents of children in French immersion programs.

Dual Language and Immersion Family Education
The Dual Language and Immersion (DLI) Family Education program was designed to expand the skills, strategies, and knowledge of parents and families to enhance their engagement and support their children's learning in DLI programs. The DLI Family Education website includes resources for family education professionals to implement the program in their own schools/districts and additional resources for DLI families.

Family Education Program Guidelines and Materials support the delivery of four face-to-face sessions for Grade K–5 DLI families and two face-to-face sessions for Grade 6–12 DLI families.

DLI Family Resources offers an online repository of videos and links that provide a deeper understanding of DLI. Additional resources are available in Spanish and Hmong.

Mandarin Immersion Parents Council (MIPC)
MIPC is a resource for families interested in Mandarin immersion education. This non-profit group operates through the Jinshan Mandarin Education Council. The MIPC web site is an information source for Mandarin immersion schools nationwide.

Multilingual Children’s Association Website
The Multilingual Children's Association focuses on the day-to-day joys and challenges of raising bilingual and multilingual children. This user-friendly website includes up-to-date information and useful resources for families seeking to raise multilingual children.



Listservs on Language Immersion Education

Language Immersion in the Americas (LIM-A)
The LIM-A listserv is for all those interested in or involved with language immersion education in the Americas. LIM-A is administered by the Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition. To subscribe, send an email message to The message without subject line or signature should read:
subscribe LIM-A your first and last names

Language Immersion in Europe (LIME)
The LIME listserv is a free electronic discussion forum for scholars, teachers, administrators and others interested in the teaching, study and administration of language immersion in general and in Europe in particular. LIME is based at the University of Vaasa, Finland. To subscribe, send an email to with
      subscribe LIME <your address>
in the body of the message.



Websites for the Dual Language-Immersion Classroom (by language)

Resources for Spanish Dual Language/Immersion classroom
Shared by Luz Celedon and Courtney Klaetsch
Nuestro Mundo Community School, Madison WI

Resources for Chinese Language and Culture Education
Shared by Tara Fortune (CARLA), Molly Wieland (XinXing Academy, Hopkins Public Schools, MN), Ping Peng (Minnetonka Public Schools, MN), and Elizabeth Weise (Mandarin Immersion Parents Council, CA)

Resources for French Immersion
Shared by Maureen Curran-Dorsano
Elementary French Immersion School, Edina MN

Resources for Ojibwe & Yup'ik Immersion
Shared by Michelle Goose, University of Minnesota
Gordon Jordain, Misaabekong Ojibwe Language Immersion
Lowell Elementary, Duluth Public Schools, Duluth, MN 



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