Resources for Struggling Immersion Learners

Chapter 5

Key Questions

  • As we work to support immersion teachers with struggling learners, what research-based adaptations to instruction are known to be effective
    with these students?

  • Which strategies are most likely to be implemented by teachers?

Useful Resources

Below are selected online and print resources that pertain to issues discussed in this chapter. Resources related to the five instructional techniques discussed in the relevant research findings section are provided first.


  1. Learning Centers: Meaningful Context for Language Use in the Primary Immersion Classroom J. Click, 2004

  2. Differentiated Instruction
    V. Eaton, 1996

  3. Differentiated Instruction Resource, 2006
    Staff Development for Educators

  4. What is Differentiated Instruction?
    Sacramento City Unified School District

  5. Enhance Learning with Technology
    P. Theroux, 2004

Multi-Modal Teaching and Learning

  1. Strategies for Helping Underperforming Immersion Learners Succeed
    K. Arnett with T. Fortune, 2004

  2. Curriculum and Project Planner, Revised Edition: For Integrating Learning Styles, Thinking Skills, and Authentic Instruction
    I. Forte and S. Schurr, 2008 Available to order at

  3. V.A.K. Learning Styles

Learning Strategies Instruction

  1. Strategy Training for Second Language Learners
    A. Cohen, 2003

  2. Teaching Learning Strategies in Immersion Classrooms
    A. U. Chamot, 2001

  3. The Elementary Immersion Learning Strategies Resource Guide (2nd Ed.)
    A.U. Chamot, K. Anstrom, A. Bartoshesky, A. Belanger, J. Delett, V. Karwan, et al.

  4. Styles- and Strategies-Based Instruction
    A. Cohen, n. d.

  5. Helping struggling Students Become Good Language Learners
    J. Robbins, J. and A. U. Chamot, 2007

Five Standards for Effective Pedagogy

  1. Instructional Scaffolding With Graphic Organizers
    L. Cammarata, L. with M.C. Bartolini, 2005

  2. The Five Standards for Effective Pedagogy
    Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence, 2002

    Available to order at: or
    Center for Applied Linguistics
    Phone: 202.362.0700

  3. Strategies for Effective Two-Way Immersion (TWI) programs: A Chinese-American perspective
    J. Chang, 2003

  4. Maximizing Language Growth Through Collaborative-Creative Writing
    T. Fortune with C. Fernandez del Rey, 2003

Cooperative Learning

  1. Kagan Structures for Cooperative Learning

  2. The Cooperative Learning Network
    D. Galambos, 2005

  3. Improving Immersion Student Oral Proficiency by Fostering the Use of Extended Discourse
    I. Punchard, 2002

General Resources

  1. Foreign Languages and Students with Learning, Hearing or Vision Disabilities
    National Clearinghouse on Disability and Exchange, 2007

    The National Clearinghouse on Disability and Exchange collaboratively developed this tip sheet to provide practical suggestions for foreign language teachers working with students with a variety of disabilities so that more students with disabilities can successfully acquire foreign language and cultural skills that are becoming increasingly important.

  2. Developing Deficit-Specific Intervention Plans for Individuals With Auditory Processing Disorders
    T. J. Bellis, 2002

    See page 13 for more information on this resource.

  3. Reciprocal Teaching
    Florida Online Reading Professional Development (FOR-PD), 2005

    See chapter 3 for more information on this resource.

  4. Two-way Immersion (TWI) Toolkit
    E. R. Howard, J. Sugarman, M. Perdomo, and T. T. Adger, 2005

    This Toolkit is designed to meet the growing demand from teachers, administrators, and parents for guidance related to the effective implementation of TWI programs. Although the Toolkit is primarily intended to support teachers, administrators, and parents who are new to two-way immersion, those with experience in TWI may also find the Toolkit useful. The Toolkit is composed of three segments: program design and planning, classroom instruction, and parental involvement. The pages that specifically address instructional strategies are 48-50.

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