Resources for Struggling Immersion Learners

Chapter 4

Key Questions

  • What kind of assessments can be given to language immersion students who are not progressing in the target language and may not be developing cognitively at an appropriate rate, or who are not yet reading and writing?

  • What languages should be used to assess an immersion learner?

Useful Resources

Below are selected online and print resources that pertain to issues discussed in this chapter.

  1. AIMSWeb
    Pearson Education, 2008

    This Internet-based student academic progress-monitoring software and materials program, created by several of the researchers who originally developed CBM, includes downloadable directions for administration and scoring of oral reading, math computation and written expression. Materials can be adapted for use in the immersion language.

  2. DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills) Home Page
    University of Oregon Center on Teaching and Learning

    A set of standardized, individually administered measures of early literacy based on student development of phonological awareness, alphabetic understanding and reading fluency are available on this website.

  3. Learning Disabilities Resource Kit: Specific Learning Disabilities Determination Procedures and Responsiveness to Intervention
    National Research Center on Learning Disabilities, 2007

    The National Research Center on Learning Disabilities developed this kit to help educators navigate the changes in the process of determining a specific learning disability and the implementation of Responsiveness to Intervention (RTI). It includes general information, tools for change, a getting started manual, an RTI manual, and PowerPoint presentations.

  4. Assessment of Struggling Elementary Immersion Learners: The St. Paul Public Schools Model
    Petzold, 2006

    This article describes the curriculum-based model used during the assessment and special education assessment process in the St. Paul Public School District.

  5. Improving Academic Performance Among American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Students: Assessment of Learning and Identification of Learning Disabilities National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, DHHS, 2005

    On March 16-18, 2005, several federal agencies, professional organizations, and associations joined forces to hold a national colloquium to address the educational needs of Native American students. Researchers and educational practitioners discussed the key issues and challenges for improving educational performance among Native American students, and began creating a blueprint for research and practice. This document summarizes these discussions.

  6. Two-way Immersion (TWI) Toolkit
    E. R. Howard, J. Sugarman, M. Perdomo, and T. T. Adger, 2005

    This Toolkit is designed to meet the growing demand from teachers, administrators, and parents for guidance related to the effective implementation of TWI programs. Although the Toolkit is primarily intended to support teachers, administrators, and parents who are new to two-way immersion, those with experience in TWI may also find the Toolkit useful. The Toolkit is composed of three segments: program design and planning, classroom instruction, and parent involvement. The pages that specifically address the assessment question are 43-47.

  7. The Oral Language Acquisition Inventory (OLAI), PreK-3
    L. M. Gentile

    This informal, repeated measures assessment tool is recommended by speech language pathologists to provide additional information about an individual learner’s control of commonly-used language structures. Such information helps to identify a child’s stage of language development and appropriate instructional practices that are learner-specific.

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