Text Analysis: Example 1
Example of a Completed Written
Jill Pearson - March, 2004
Theme: Water Use
Text Title: Comment
préserver l'eau à la maison
Grade Level: 11th-12th
Language Proficiency Level:
listening, intermediate-low to mid;
writing, intermediate-low to advanced.
PLEASE NOTE: To see this text analysis as an integrated piece
of a lesson (and the unit), please visit Lesson
2 of Jill's unit.
Key related concepts
Waste (of water), water
purification, hygiene, conservation
- Household activities such as toilet
flushing, showing (and other hygienic activities), clothes
and gardening use a lot of water (see text for figures).
- In Western countries, we use water that is purified to the
water for tasks that do not involve human consumption of
- Household appliances typically use a lot of water, but
new products that are made to save water (toilets, shower
Essential Understandings Requiring Pre-teaching
- People need water to live.
- People depend on water for many
activities during the day.
- Many people waste/ use excessively
may take water and its availability for granted.
here today may not be tomorrow.
- There are steps we can
individuals to conserve water.
Unfamiliar cultural assumptions
Products (unfamiliar or familiar but
used in a new way)
Gardens or yards (see below)
Toilet (model pictured
in text is likely unfamiliar to American youth)
appliances (according to this article, they have le label européen.
Practices (unfamiliar or familiar but used
in a new way)
"jardinage": gardening in Belgium, where this text
is from, would likely involve much less water than American gardening
or lawn care due to the fact that lawns are typically smaller in
Belgium and people in America water their grass more in an effort
to keep it very green, and for that matter, are more likely to
use sod than Belgians.
Using “litres” as measurement
Bigger is not necessarily better
Purpose (e.g., present information, teach
a moral, entertain, etc.)
Discussion: to evaluate an issue and
Report: to give information
Text Structure (e.g., introduce setting/character,
events, problem/resolution, etc.)
Title: Identifies issue (conservation
of water at home)
Thesis: “It's important to consume water in a responsible manner and to eliminate
Supporting evidence: Shows how much water we use for different
domestic tasks, shares figures regarding how changing habits and making changes
in appliances can conserve water
2nd statement of position: “Use a rain water well for washing, cleaning, the
toilets, washing machine, and watering your garden”
Supporting evidence: list
of advantages (economic, environmental, etc.)
Linguistic Features related to Genre [connectives,
(e.g., adverbs of time, conjunctions), verb type (action vs. saying
verbs), verb tense, use of dialogue, etc.]
- Inclusion through
use of "nous" imperative: choisissons, concentrons-nous,
choose, let's concentrate, let's repare…)
[NOTE: this feature
might be in conflict with the framework for linguistic features
discussion genre set forth by Fortune & Tedick 2003. Nominalization
is not used to create authority and de-personalize the text;
rather, the language is inclusive and incites the reader to
join a collective
movement. Perhaps this can be explained by the fact that this
is a less sophisticated text aimed at a younger audience.]
Clarifying (donc), indicating time (lors, lorsque), adding
- Conjunctions: Showing cause/effect (par
- Additional cause & effect language (Elle permet…, Cela prolonge…)
Learning Strategies and Possible Instructional Activities
Make personal connection to
the issue by conducting a personal investigation: chart how many
times you flush the toilet, wash hands, etc.
through a discussion of their “findings.”
Make predictions both
about how much water you use and about the title and the content
of the article.
Recognize and use cognates to comprehend the text.
Make inferences based on context (including pictures/use imagery) to interpret the meaning
of the text.
background knowledge such as previously learned vocabulary (domestic
Apply personal learning strategies (manage my own
learning, monitor task, use resources - ask questions)
Summarize the reading and debrief
as a class.
Personalize the text and apply the information by using
the figures given to calculate how much water you used in the day
you recorded your activities.
Compare water use with classmates
through discussion (cooperate).
Take notes, making a list of linguistic
features-the different ways suggestions are made.
listing things we can do to conserve water that are: easy/ less
easy, inexpressive/ expensive, things I am willing to do/ things
, things I'm not willing to do, etc. (also personalize).
Vocabulary (Words, Phrases, Idioms)
Essential vocabulary for learning the content
Personal hygiene/domestic task vocabulary: se laver, se baigner,
prendre une douche, le nettoyage, le jardinage, activités ménagères,
la vaisselle, la chasse d'eau, domestique
Waste & conservation related vocabulary: gaspillage, préserver, réduire,
perte Other: moyenne, consommer, l'eau potable, la chasse , utilisation,
Select vocabulary to review or preview (material
or activity related) (CC)
L'eau, la maison, l'environnement
language: cher, le prix, coûter
Grammatical Structures and Communicative Functions
Essential language structures and functions
for learning the content (CO)
Functions: stating importance, making suggestions
Negation: Ne..que, ne…pas
Imperatives: infinitives as imperatives and nous imperatives
Select language structures and functions to
review or preview (material or activity related) (CC)
Functions: expressing obligation, making
suggestions, showing consequence (permettre de faire quelque
making predictions (je
pense que, je crois que); making comparisons: plus, moins,
aussi + adverb or
Question forms, rhetorical questions