spaceCenter for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA)

Exercise 9: Simulation Exercise for Apologizing – 1   

A strategy to learn here is to provide an appropriate reason for causing the infraction.  Below are the reasons for cancellation given by Japanese university students.


1)    family illness (23%)

2)    your own physical condition (19%)

3)    conflict with your school business (19%)

4)    trouble with transportation (10%)


Common characteristics among these reasons are their realistic nature and the fact that they are beyond your control. 



These data in Exercise 9 are based on a study by Hayashi (1999).

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