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Exercise 9: Simulation Exercise for Apologizing – 1 

The number of apology expressions offered by Japanese students (all apology expressions combined)

2 times (40%)

3 times (25%)

4 times (21%)


Note: In Hayashi’s study, Japanese students wrote down imagined interactions.  When they were to speak, they might actually use more apology expressions than shown above.


In formal situations speaking to someone older or of higher status, Japanese speakers might use various apology expressions rather than repeating the same one.



These data in Exercise 9 are based on a study by Hayashi (1999).


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