The Virtual Picture Album -- India

The grid below is an annotated index to part of the Virtual Picture Album compiled and distributed by the Less Commonly Taught Languages Project at the University of Minnesota. The pictures in this section of the VPA are of people, places and objects in India. Each of the pictures is represented by a thumbnail-sized image in the grid, and is accompanied by:

Look at our set of sample exercisesto see how these pictures can be incorporated into online (web) exercises.

We also have suggestions for ways to use certain pairs or groups of pictures.

To view or download a full-sized picture from the VPA, click on its thumbnail representation below.

Photo (Thumbnail) Vocabulary Items Topics Grammar Points
bottom, building, corner, distance, new, old, roof, small; tall, top, view, wood everyday life -kids' house duties;
lifestyles -rich vs. poor;
urban/rural -urban;
agreement -adjective- noun, subject-verb;
comparison of adjectives;
tense/aspect -habitual present;
Agra blue, building, green, mosque, palace, sky; temple, tomb, white;

in front of, on top of, on the left/right side of;

historic/religious elements -Agra, Taj Mahal's history;
case - direct/oblique case of nouns and adjectives (singular);
car, to catch, to cross, crowded, to drive, empty, park, row (n.), to stand, to stop, street lamp, street lights, truck, to wait, to walk transportation -traffic; tense/aspect -present/past progressive;
clothes, clothesline, clouds, complete, completely, to dry, to fold, ground, to hang, rocks, rope, stick, to stretch, sunshine, washermen occupations -washerman;
case - direct/oblique case of nouns and adjectives (plural);
tense/aspect - habitual present;
factory, hill, mountain, residential area, valley, workers urban/rural -rural; pollution; living conditions for the workers in a factory  
crop, to cultivate, farmer, fertilization, fertilizer, field, to grow, irrigation system, landlord, plant, to plow, to produce to ripen, stem, to yoke culture -rank, age, class issues;
occupations - farmers, farming;
relative/co-relative sentences (manner and time);
voice/mood - passive voice;
alley, bucket, clean/pure, to collect, dirt road, drop, to fill, full, gate, hen, jar, polluted/dirty, rug, shoe, tap, wall, well animals -hen (domestic);
urban/rural -water sources in India
relative/co-relative sentences;
mud, raw house, rainy season geography - climatic differences between the north and south of India;
cliff, to dry up, floors, inn, mountain, rock; rugs, stairs, to go down/go up the stairs, to stop (at a hotel) religious practices - pilgrimage discourse markers;
emphatic particles;
tense/aspect -future;
dough, to flatten, flour, to knead, to mix, to press, roller everyday life - women's duties;
food - Indian cuisine, cooking;
kuch and koii;
relative/corelative sentences (quantity)
boiler, dishes, to empty, to fill, sink, tap, to wash everyday life - women's duties;
food - Indian cuisine, cooking;
case - oblique pronouns;
ko-postposition of the direct and indirect object;
to break, to grind, to smash, shells, walnuts everyday life - women's duties;
food - Indian cuisine, cooking;
compound verbs;
conjunctive participle
to add, bowl, to clean, to cook, to cut, to dry, floor, green beans, lentils, mattress, peas everyday life - women's duties;
food - Indian cuisine, cooking;
compound verbs;
tense/aspect - future
market attached, flowers, garlands, gods, green, hung, image, to offer, offering, orange, to pray, put, red, sacrifice, to sit, statue, sweets, trays, white, to worship;

over, on, under, in between, in, out

religious practices -temple-going, worshipping in India;
agreement- adjective-noun;
locative/spatial relations;
participial adjectives;
tense/aspect -habitual present/past;
fruit seller apple, banana, coconut, to give, grapes, limes, mango, to need, orange, pineapple, to stand, to take, who, what, where;
next to, in the middle of, in front of, behind
culture -rank, age, class issues;
food -fruits and vegetables;
shopping -seller-buyer dialogue;
imperative verb forms;
interrogative sentences;
locative/spatial relations;
pronouns -2nd person sg/pl;
arrival/departure, booth, to catch, crowd, to get on, passenger, pillars, sign, time-table, train; to wait for at railway station - dealing with kulis, ticket purchase, eating at the station/on the train;
religious practices - festivals;
travel -train;
complex verbs ( puujaa, praartna, koshish karnaa);
locative/spatial relations;
bank (river), boat, coast, Ganges, to get on/off, to hold, to light, rainy season, river, to swim/float, to throw, umbrella, water religious elements -Varanasi and the Ganges (religious significance);
religious practices -daily practices at the banks of the Ganges, men's and women's duties;
seasons - the monsoon;
relative/co-relative sentences;
cobbler to clean, cobbler, to expect, leather, to leave, to order, sandals, to sew, shoe repairs, to try lifestyles - rich vs. poor;
occupations - cobbler;
causative verbs;
locative/spatial relations;
obligatory constructions;
temple ascetic, banner, blessing, ceremony, to fast, garland, holy man, to meditate, to make offering, offering, to pray, religious devotee, sacrifice, to sacrifice, shelter religious practices - temple going, worshipping;
tense/aspect - progressive (imperfect ppl. + rahnaa), intensive (imperfect ppl. + jaanaa) and frequentative aspect (perfect ppl. +karnaa)
village-1 to build, cocoa tree, mud, roof, shade, shed, straw, sunshine, to support urban/rural - rural village;
participial adjectives
village-2 cow dung, to dry up, pile, yard culture -castes and occupations;
urban/rural - rural village;
complex postpositions
wedding to arrange, blessing, bride, bridegroom, bridegroom's party, ceremony, to feed, gifts, guest, to invite, to be shy, to wear, wedding ceremonies -wedding;
culture - wedding traditions
wedding portrait black, blue, bride, bridegroom, carpet, colorful, floor, gold, green, pink, wall, wedding ceremonies -wedding;
culture - wedding traditions
agreement - noun-adjective, verb-subject;
village well bucket, to carry, to fill, electricity, power lines, to roll, stick, to take out, to throw down, well urban/rural - rural village, water resources expressing 'to need'

animals   agreement
at the railway station   case
ceremonies   causative verbs
clothing   comparison
colors   complex postpositions
  complex verbs
everyday life
  conjunctive participle
historic/religious elements
  discourse markers
lifestyles   emphatic particles
occupations   expressing 'to need'
religious practices   imperative verb forms
seasons   interrogative sentences
shopping   ko-verb
transportation   kuch and koii
travel   locatives/spatial relations
urban/rural   obligatory constructions
weather   participial adjectives
  relative/co-relative sentences

Grouping Suggestions

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