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Resources for Struggling Immersion Learners

Chapter 3

Key Questions

  • In an immersion program, how much of a reading lag still falls into the normal range when learners are acquiring initial literacy?

  • What initial literacy challenges should constitute a cause for concern?

Useful Resources

Below are selected online and print resources that pertain to issues discussed in this chapter.

  1. Parents Guide to Reading and Language
    Public Broadcasting Systems (PBS), 2008

    This online guide is available in English and Spanish and describes how children become readers and writers and how others can help them develop by talking, reading, and writing together every day.

  2. Launching into Literacy: Early Childhood Professionals’ Developmental Language and Literacy Milestones
    Kehl and Ballweg, 2007

    These pages describe various research-based language, math, and pre-literacy behaviors that typically developing children (ages 0-3, 3-5) display.

Developmental Milestones, Language and Literacy
Infants and Toddlers, 0-3
Preschool, 3-5

Developmental Milestones, Math
Infants and Toddlers, 0-3
Preschool, 3-5

  1. Learning to Read/Reading to Learn Campaign: Helping Children with Learning Disabilities to Succeed

    The National Center to Improve the Tools of Educators, based at the University of Oregon, sponsored a Learning to Read/Reading to Learn campaign in 1996. This web page presents 10 prerequisite skills necessary for building a solid reading foundation. It also contains links to other resources that address developing reading skills in children with learning disabilities as well as tips for parents.

  2. Recognizing Reading Problems ColorĂ­n Colorado, 2007

    This bilingual site provides useful information about reading for parents and educators. This particular article identifies specific behaviors to look for when a child is struggling with learning to read and ways to respond.

  3. Dyslexia and the Brain: What Does Current Research Tell Us?
    R. F. Hudson, L. High, and S. Al Otaiba, 2007


    This online article defines dyslexia and dispels some common myths about this neurological disability. It includes resources and recommendations for teachers and parents of dyslexic children who struggle with reading.

  4. Reciprocal Teaching Florida Online Reading Professional Development (FOR-PD), 2005
    (Predicting and Questioning)
    (Clarifying and Summarizing)
    (Reciprocal Teaching and Whole-Class Instruction)


    These websites developed by the FOR-PD Program describe the rationale behind Reciprocal Teaching and explain how to implement it in the reading classroom. The first two pages focus on the four reading strategies, what they are and how to instruct students on their use. The third page considers how reciprocal teaching can be used with a whole class and assessment options. These FOR-PD pages also provide links to additional resources and references.

  5. Encyclopedia of Language and Literacy Development
    Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network

    Launched in 2007, this online resource is being developed by the Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network to provide in-depth, research-based information about topics such as language, numeracy, reading and writing development. Submissions are written by internationally recognized experts and address unilingual and multilingual development for typical and atypical learners.


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Last Modified: March 25, 2014 at 10:19